These include Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS), Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), and Direct Air Capture (DAC). Technology solutions rely on geological storage of CO2 for large-scale carbon removal and could play a significant role in clean energy transitions. Other technology options include implementation of renewable power and energy efficiency, emission reduction projects, and so forth.
Enhanced Natural Processes
These include land management approaches to increase the carbon content in soil through modern farming methods. This can incorporate the addition of biochar (charcoal produced from biomass) to soils, where the carbon can remain stored for hundreds or thousands of years. Less developed approaches include enhanced weathering to accelerate natural processes that absorb CO2.
These include afforestation and reforestation. These involve the repurposing of land use by growing forests where there were none before (afforestation) or re-establishing a forest where there was one in the past (reforestation). Other nature-based solutions include restoration of coastal and marine habitats to ensure they continue to draw CO2 from the air.